Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

Robert Sandler | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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In 1947 Robert Sandler received his first injection of controversial amniopterin. Within weeks, Robert began to show results as his status improved; what we now commonly refer to as 'remission.'

Dr. Bernard Fisher | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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For decades, the radical mastechtomy served as the most common procedure used in breast cancer operations. As a revolutionary in his field, Doctor Bernard Fisher believed in a new treatment, a lumpechtomy, rather than mastechtomy for treating breast cancer.

What is Cancer? | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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Cancer is the fastest growing disease on earth. Learn about the impact, both for individuals and for society.

Evolution in a Bottle | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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With new advancements in genetic sequencing, doctors will soon be able to map all the genes and pathways within any patients cancer. This would allow treatment to be individualized, much like the approach to treating many infectious diseases but is largely unheard of in oncology.

Future of Cancer Treatment | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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The future of cancer research and treatment is optimistic. Now that scientists are able to fully understand the disease, development into more advanced treatments is the next mission that oncologists must face.

Mary-Claire King | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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In the 1970s, Mary Claire King began investigating genetic links of cancer in families, and discovered the genetic mutation that causes breast cancer, proving that certain types of breast cancers are genetic diseases.

Prevention and Fairness Doctrine | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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Anti-Tobacco ads began running in the late 1960s under the Fairness Doctrine. The fight against cancer turns towards prevention, which opens new doors in combating the disease. Now, rather than a issue of biology and medicine, it became an issue of psychology and advertising.

Dr. Robert Weinberg | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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One of the most impressive breakthroughs in the understanding of cancer was the oncogene: a gene that controls normal, safe cellular growth that can undergo a mutation, therefore becoming cancerous. Robert Weinberg developed experiments to identify the first human oncogene, the Ras Oncogene.

Cigarette Infographic | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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This video infographic charts the decline of smoking though the decades, from the last smoking advertisement in 1971 through to the 1980s and 1990s, when awareness of the link between smoking and cancer continued to grow in the public eye.

Scientific Method (Media Gallery) | Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies

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The history of cancer research has shown how scientists have used the basic steps of the scientific method to make new discoveries and advances in the understanding of cancer, cancer treatment and cancer cures. Watch the clips below about scientists Dr. Sidney Farber, Dr. Bernard Fisher, and Dr. Robert Weinberg, and identify and discuss the steps they took to make their discoveries. What was the problem they were trying to solve? What evidence did they have? What kind of experiments did they conduct? What conclusions did they draw from their experiments? Were they able to replicate their experiments?

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