Language

Martha's Memory - Martha Speaks | PBS KIDS Lab

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Help children understand point of view in storytelling and build vocabulary using this Martha Speaks video! Martha and friends discuss what the words "certain" and "sure" mean, and Martha shares her version of how a game they played ended.

Este video se centra en ayudar a niños para comprender el punto de vista de la narración y desarrollar el vocabulario. Martha y sus amigos discuten lo que las palabras "algunos " y "seguro" significan, y Martha comparte su versión de cómo terminó el partido.

Concept of Definition Chart: Prior to Reading the Book

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Observe how a teacher directly teaches the concept of force prior to having students engage with a science text.

Using Commas and Quotations | No Nonsense Grammar

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Quotations and commas are two very useful punctuation tools that indicate dialogue and brief pausing in sentences. Learn how to use them correctly!

A Splendid Friend, Indeed

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The fictional children’s book A Splendid Friend, Indeed written and illustrated by Suzanne Bloom is Pennsylvania’s One Book, Every Young Child 2007 selection. A child-like Goose pesters his fuzzy friend the Polar Bear as he tries to read and write. After Goose brings Bear a snack, a blanket and a note, Bear is touched, and realizes what a good friend Goose is. Bear gives Goose a big hug before they sit down for a snack.

How to Punctuate Items in a Series | No Nonsense Grammar

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Another way to confuse readers or audiences is not using commas and conjunctions when listing items in a series. Always use a comma in between items in a series, and use a conjunction before adding the last item in a list.

Martha to the Rescue

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You can use this video for Session 2 of the MARTHA SPEAKS Reading Buddies program. Students watch the video, in which Martha yearns to be a hero just like her favorite TV star. After watching, buddy pairs talk about the episode, make a SuperPup puppet, read a children’s book together, and write in their journal. Prior to using this resource for Reading Buddies, be sure you have read the complete introductory materials in the MARTHA SPEAKS Reading Buddies Program Guide.

Key vocabulary: hero, rescue, brave, courageous

Using AAC to Communicate About a Book | English Language Arts Strategies for Students with Cognitive Disabilities

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In this self-contained lower elementary classroom, a student uses an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device to communicate with the teacher about a self-selected alphabet book. The teacher and the student work together to navigate through the communication system. The student starts by turning the pages back to a page he wants and the teacher helps support his efforts in getting to the desired page. The teacher notices his finger on a word at the top of the page (this is easy to miss if you are not looking for it) and then together they locate the page that helps him communicate about and explore alphabet letters. The video demonstrates effective strategies for engaging students with significant cognitive disabilities in literacy instruction.

Avoid Fragments and Run-Ons | No Nonsense Grammar

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Sentence fragments can't stand alone, because they do not express a complete thought. Run-ons put two complete sentences together in one sentence without separating them.

Rhyming Words and Spelling Patterns | English Language Arts Strategies for Students with Cognitive Disabilities

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In this self-contained upper elementary classroom, a teacher uses an activity called Rounding Up the Rhymes. The teacher previously read a book and asked students to signal each time they heard a pair of words that rhymed. The teacher then presents pairs of words that the students identified and asks them to remove pairs that do not have the same spelling pattern. The video demonstrates effective strategies for engaging students with significant cognitive disabilities in literacy instruction.

Montana Mosaic: Montana Industry - The Agriculture Years

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Like the rest of the nation, Montana pulled out of the Great Depression in the early 1940s with the United States’ sudden immersion into World War II (1941–1945). Montana agriculture recovered when the long drought cycle ended and a series of wet years produced bumper crops and robust livestock herds again.

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